History of BAM
The railway to come was first named Baikal-Amur railway in 1930 in the document sent by Far East regional organizations to Central committee of Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks) and people's commissar council with the suggestion of designing and constructing of the 2nd railway leading to the Pacific Ocean in the East Siberia and the Far East. Preliminary working out by Khabarovsk and Irkutsk designers were considered in the documents.
In 1933 the report "Plan of developing of BAM district" was sent to Political Bureau of Central committee of Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks). In 1934 the decision to include the construction of BAM in the 3rd 5-year plan was made on the congress of C.P.S.U.(B.).
The region where enormous volume of work was to be performed was developing on basis of government support for many years due to geographical and economical conditions. In 30-50s 2075 km of railways approaching BAM and on end parts were constructed at the expense of public funds.
In 1967 under the decision of Government the design works on BAM were recommenced. Under the enactment "The construction of Baykal-Amur Railroad"of Central committee of C.P.S.U.(B.) and Council of Ministers of USSR dated July 8, 1974 indispensable funds for the construction of pivot of transport infrastructure (1st category railway 3100 km long, 2nd track Taishet-Lena 740 km long, Bamovskaya-Tynda and Tynda-Berkakit 400 km lines) were assigned.
During half of a century the importance of construction of Baikal-Amur railway for the development of Siberia and The Far East, its economical expediency and military and strategic necessity were permanently emphasized.
Baikal-Amur railway is the last giant construction of the XX century. It took 15 years altogether for BAM construction. The railway was being layed through taiga for 10 years and then major equipping of railway was performed for 5 years. In September 29, 1984 the laying of the famous "Golden link" of Baikal-Amur railway was performed and the first trains started running along the new railway from Ust-Kut to Komsomolsk-on-Amur.
The railway crosses the territory of Irkutsk, Chita, Amur, Buriatia and Yakutia regions and Khabarovsk territory.
The railway 4300 km long crosses 11 deep rivers, 7 mountain ridges. There are 8 tunnels along the railway, among them the longest Russian tunnel - Severomuisk tunnel 15 343 m long, total length of underground working - more than 45 km.
Bridge builders constructed in all 2230 long and short bridges. The railway passes more than 200 railway stations and sidings, more than 60 cities and settlements.
Along with the Trans-Siberian Railway Baikal-Amur railway is the second outlet for Russia to the Pacific Ocean. BAM offers for Russia the grand challenge.
BAM was to solve 5 important tasks of national scale:
- provide the access to natural resources of the huge region;
- provide the transit traffic along the shortest way (decrease the length of route by 00 km);
- produce the shortest transcontinental railway route East-West where 10 000 km are Russian railways;
- prevent possible problem in traffic along Trans-Siberian railway;
- become the "support bar" of developing of extensive territory (about 1 500 000 sq m), rich in valuable mineral fuel-energy and forest resources.
The links to the information about BAM (Russian version):